Incorporation of triclosan and acridine orange into liposomes for evaluating the susceptibility of Candida albicans.


Candida albicans is responsible for many of the infections affecting immunocompromised individuals. Although most C. albicans are susceptible to antifungal drugs, uncontrolled use of these drugs has promoted the development of resistance to current antifungals. The clinical implication of resistant strains has led to the search for safer and more effective drugs as well as alternative approaches, such as controlled drug release using liposomes and photodynamic inactivation (PDI), to eliminate pathogens by combining light and photosensitizers. In this study, we used layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly to immobilize triclosan and acridine orange encapsulated in liposomes and investigated the possibility of controlled release using light. Experiments were carried out to examine the susceptibility of C. albicans to PDI. The effects of laser irradiation were investigated by fluorescence microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and release kinetics. Liposomes were successfully prepared and immobilized using the self-assembly LBL technique. Triclosan was released more quickly when the LBL film was irradiated. The release rate was approximately 40% higher in irradiated films (fluence of 15J/cm2) than in non-irradiated films. The results of the susceptibility experiments and surface morphological analysis indicated that C. albicans cell death is caused by photodynamic inactivation. Liposomes containing triclosan and acridine orange may be useful for inactivating C. albicans using light. Our results lay the foundation for the development of new clinical strategies to control resistant strains.


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